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Friday, 24 May 2013

History Bharuch ( Guajrat )

Chaurasi  Samaj Kadva Patidar 
History Bharuch ( Guajrat )

Bharuch

Bharuch
Bharuch District, situated on the Bank of River Narmada, the lifeline of Gujarat, holds special position in the industrial development of Gujarat and India. Arabian Sea touches it on its west side. The green region can be seen as the river Narmada passes through the district. The Bharuch district looks beautiful with the forests and the charming lands on the river banks covered by greeneries. The history of the district holds unique characteristics since the ancient age, in which Pandavas had spent some time in the forest and the hilly regions of Zagadia and Valia during their exile at the time of Mahabharata. It is supported by the ancient scriptures.
The Bharuch district holds a leading position in the history and the tradition of Gujarat. The Bharuch region is a special region having ancient culture.

Bharuch is blessed by the holy river Narmada, one of the seven big rivers of our country. It has the maximum number of the religious places and temples when compared to other districts of the Gujarat state. Considered as one of the huge ventures of the world, the multi faceted Saradar Sarovar Dam scheme, which is called as the lifeline of Gujarat, when completed, it will change the whole scenario of the Gujarat state and will serve as the life saving drug for the land and the people of the Gujarat which is unless deprived due to the situation of draught The industrial area of the Ankleshwar spread over 2600 hectares is considered as the largest industrial area of Gujarat and it is leading in the whole Asia.As per the ancient culture the region of Bharuch is linked with the Bhragus of these ancient times. The description of Bhragukutchh can be seen in the Jatakas written in the fifth century B. C. and also in Sabha Parva of Mahabharata.

The priests of the Narmada were famous for their learning in the other regions too. As per the mythological stories, Agnihotri and Samvedi, the learned priests of Shukaltirtha were famous up to the Kashi in the northern India. In the first century A. D. Bharuch port has been mentioned as Barigaza. Bharuch which was prosperous and powerful port was an important port of Gujarat till the 16th century. Arab traders used to enter Gujarat via Bharuch and do their business. British, Valandas etc. accepted the importance of Bharuch and established their business centre here. At the end of the 17th century, it was plundered twice but resurged quickly after the plunder and a proverb was also phrased for it, “Bhangyu Bhangyu Toye Bharuch”.
This district has remained on top in the matters of education and culture also. Bharuch is shining since years back because of the internationally famous Pt. Omkarnath Thakur in the field of music. In the field of literature, the literature Gurus like Dr. Kanaiyalal Munshi and Sundaram has bestowed Bharuch unique pride. The rain festival celebrated in Bharuch during monsoon is unique in the whole India. In the whole country, the festival depicting the importance of ancient agricultural traditions is celebrated only here.

The western region on the northern banks of the river Narmada was known as Bharu kutchh and head quarter was known as bharukatchh ( Bharuch ). After that this name was changed into Bhragukutchh because of the control and habitation of Bhragus ( Bhargavas ). Bhragupur, the place of confluence of Narmada and the sea has the importance as the Bhraguteerth. Bhragu Rishi had two sons, Ushanash and Chyavan which has been mentioned in the history as per the ancient Vedas.

Princess of Sinhal, Sudarshana had built the Shakunika Vihara in the Bhragukutchh during the rule of Sampati ( 229 – 220 B. C. ) anda Bharuch trader became responsible for the memories of the princess. This depicts trade relations between Laat and Ceylon.During the Prarga – Maurya period in Gujarat, King Pradyot Mahaveer of Ujjain ruled over Bhragukutchh in 550 A. D.

He was contemporary of Gautam Buddha. Maurya period was between 322 – 185 B. C. Post Maurya period is mentioned between 185 B. C. and 23 A. D. During the decade of 70 – 80 A. D. coins of Greek writing were used in Bharuch. The Activity region of Jain priest Arya Khapoot ( 1st century A. D. ) was in the Aatapata region of Bharuch. He had released the Ashvaavabodh pilgrim in Bharuch out of the control of the Bauddhas.

Kshatraya era ( Around 23 to 400 A. D. )

In the 1st century A. D. kings of Shaka community established their rule in Gujarat. Nabhovaahan ( Nahapaan ), the king of Bharukutchh was very prosperous. During the Kshatraya era Bharuch port was very prosperous. It was a gateway of trading through land and waters both routes. Like other ancient ports, trading of slaves also took place at the Bharuch port.
Seven caves have been discovered from Kadiyadungar near Jhajhapore near Ankleshwar of the Bharuch district. These caves seem as the Bauddha Vihaaras. It seems that they were sculpted in 1st or 2nd century. 
Gupta Era ( Around 415 – 470 A. D. )
During this time kings of Trekootaka dynasty ruled the north of the Konkan and south of the Laata. Trekootaka ruled over the Surat district but the border of their state could not be decided. In the lines of Daspur of the weavers of Laata ( South Gujarat ) it has been mentioned that Sun-Temple was built in 437 A. D.

Maitrak Era ( Around 470 – 788 A. D. )
It is known that in 540 A. D. which dynasty ruled over the Bharuch state In 540 A. D. a Mahasamant named Sangramsinh ruled over Bharukutchh, But nothing is known about the king. During this period Hakem Usmanbhai Hakem had attacked over Bharuch. In the 648 A. D. king Dhansen – 4 of Vallbhi had put winning camp in Bharukutchh.A Muslim traveller Al – Biladuri had written in his notes that in 713 – 714 A. D.

Governor of Sindh, Hasam Bin Amru Tughlakhi came to Gandhar port by boat. He destroyed the idols and the temples and built Mosques in place of them in the time of 760 A. D. Arab Hakem Hisham of Sindh had attacked the Gandhar port near Bharuch.In the post Maitrak era during 788 – 942 A. D. Rashtrakuta kings of south Laata ruled over Bharuch.

Solanki Era ( 942 – 1304 A. D. )
In 942 A. D. Moolaraj 1st established the rule of Solanki dynasty in Anahilvaad Patan. Till this time the importance of Bharuch as the trade centre was continued. It was the capital of Laata region at the starting of 11th century. It was the centre for the ships coming from China and Sindh in the 12th century Mahatma Vastupal had established a library in Bharuch.

The priest Chakradhar Swami of Bharuch was during the era of Bhimdev 2nd. He established the Mahanubhav community which was spread in Maharashtra. One Madresa was built during the Solanki era in Bharuch.

Middle era ( 1293 - 1872 A. D.)

The middle era history of Bharuch district can be divided in three main parts, out of which, we can say that Sultanat era – 1297 to 1572. Mughal era – 1572 to 1736 and Maratha era – 1783 to 1802 were the eras of struggle. Bharuch was ruled by Delhi Sultanat for 94 years, Gujarat’s independent Sultanat for 181 years, Mughal Sultanat for 164 years, independent emirs for 36 years and Maratha rule for 19 years.

During these times revenue was collected from Bharuch and hundreds of people specially the rich people were killed .Same way in the cities on the banks of river Kavi in Jambusar taluka there were many big and rich Muslim communities. They were mainly formed by the foreign traders.
On taking a bird’s eye view of the financial structure of the whole era of Gujarat’s sultanat it can be seen that the era was cheaper and prosperous also when Akbar had won over Bharuch during Mughal era it had 12 Paraganas. The annual growth of all 559 villages of the Bharuch, Hansot, Olpad, Mandvi, Galaa, Jambusar, Dahej, Koral, Ankleshwar and Tadakeshwar paraganas was Rs. 75 lac. As given in the Tabakka – E – Akbari there is a description of severe draught and spread of contentious epidemic in Gujarat.

Jahangir Rule ( 1605 – 1627 A. D.)
On understanding the importance of Bharuch district as the trade centre, British had taken permission from Jahangir for establishing the office during this era. Jahangir also gave permission for trade to the British. A big office building built by the Valandas in the 1700 A. D. can be seen in the Kansarvaad near Bharuch. This building has a fort around it.

Attacks by the Marathas ( 1664 to 1685 A. D.)
Marathas had plundered Bharuch twice. Due to six draughts between 1681 and 1696 prosperity of both the ports was ruined. By the end of the 17th century their place was taken over due to the development of Mumbai port. In 1772 A. D. after the control of Bharuch was taken by the British, Valandas also left their trade centre in Bharuch.

Independent Nawaabs of Bharuch ( 1736 to 1772 A. D. )
During this period independent Nawaabs rule over Bharuch. Nizamumude, Abhesinh, Damaji Gayakawad of Vadodara, Mirza Baig, ahemad Baig, Hakem, Nawab Mozumkhan, Prabhudas Seth of Bharuch, Peshwa Bajirao etc. rulers fought and ruled over Bharuch during this period.
It can be said that the movement for freedom struggle against foreign rulers in Bharuch started in 1905. But before that in the struggle of 1857 also Bharuch district had played an important role. Bharuch had contributed in the Swadeshi and Home Rule movements also. In which Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi of Bharuch also joined the national struggle.

Contribution in Dandi Yatra and Satyagraha movement
In 1930 the movement of Satyagraha had spread in Gujarat which had affected Jambusar also. On the 12th of the March of 1930 when Gandhiji started the Dandi Kuch with some of his supporters, the route of Dandi Kuch in Bharuch district was from Devaataa village of Borsad taluka via Jambusar Amod on the other side of the river Mahi via Bharuch and Ankleshwar on the other side of the river Narmada and reaching Dandi via Surat. The Dandi Kuch arrived in Kareli village on 20th March and 22nd March, 1930 became a memorial day in Jambusar which is a proof of the history of freedom struggle.
The land of Jambusar reminds us of two historical moments of the freedom struggle.

Contribution of the leaders from Bharuch in other national movements

Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi of Bharuch district had participated in the Home Rule movement. He was imprisoned for participating in struggles of Bardoli movement in the year 1938, “Savinay Kanoon Bhang” in the 1930 and personal movement in the year 1940. Chunilal Shivlal Modi, who was born in 1913 in Bharuch, participated in the struggle of “Savinaya Kaanoon Bhang” in the 1930 at the age of 18 years. Chandrashankar Manishankar Bhatt of Amod played a leading role in spreading the movement of “Hind Chhodo”.
Dinkar Rao Nabheram Desai of Bharuch participated in all the movements of freedom struggle and was imprisoned for five times. Tribhuvandas Chhaganlal Paalejwala of Palej village had played a leading role in picketing the foreign cloths shops in Bharuch in the year 1930. Manishankar Bhatt of Panjareli village had motivated the youth of the district to participate in the freedom struggle. Maganbhai Rugnathdas Patel of Bhadaam village had played a leading role in the Dholera movement in the year 1930.
Manishankar Ranchhoddas Sukawala of Bharuch had played an active role in non co-operation movement in the year 1920 – 21.
Ratuprasad Nathalal Bhatt of Bharuch participated in all freedom movements and was imprisoned, Vinodchandra Chunilal Shah, “Savinaya Kaanoon Bhang” movement, Chunilal Dharamlal Shah of Amod and Chhotubhai Mitilal Patel of Tegava village had devotedly served the freedom fighters, Tribhuvandas Purushottamdas Luhaar ( Sundaram ) of Matar village, non co-operation movement in the year 1920, Desaibhai Bakorbhai Patel of Kahanava village, historical Dandi Kuch, Nathuram Kashiram Bhatt of Raima village, Yashvantray Rajaram Joshi of Malanpore village of Hansot district, Shanabhai Jhaverbhai Patel of Uber village, Vitthalbhai Ranchhodabhai Patel of Sarbhan village, Raysangh Dabhai Parmar and Vishnu Dattatrey Bhoder of Bajodara village had participate in all the freedom movements in the district along with Chhotubhai Purani.
Surajben Hardev Banarasi of Aasta village of Hansot Taluka, who was born in the year 1905 and widowed at a young age, got renowned as the leading lady freedom fighter and female worker. She was imprisoned for participating in the freedom movement, contributed significantly in the activities related to the uplift of the women and activities of creative programs. Like the other districts of Gujarat Bharuch district also had participated actively in various freedom struggles and had suffered loss of property and lives of their citizens. Almost all the talukas of Bharuch district had enlightened their people about political and national spirit by participating in freedom struggle through local leadership and history is the proof of the activities of the uplift of the people by implementing the creative programs instructed by Gandhiji.
 


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