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Tuesday, 28 May 2013

History Kutch ( Guajrat )

Chaurasi  Samaj Kadva Patidar
History Kutch ( Guajrat ) 

Kutch is an Ancient land. It has an important historical age. It is known as Kutch due to its Geographical Characteristics and due to its turtle-like land shape. It’s this name has reference in ancient literatures. Mallinathi, in his ‘Bhashya Sanjivani’ on ‘Amarkosh’, has explained it as damp region or fallow low land. The reference of it on this name is in the notes on this region of the foreign travellers visited this country in the old times and in Rock Inscriptions, in Scripted Copper Plates and in ancient writings and manuscripts. Before the rise of the Christian era, the region between Sindh and Saurashtra has been described as ‘Aabhir’ and the name has reference in Mahabharata also. The Greek visitor and army commander also, during the second century Before Christ, referred to this region as ‘Aabiria’ or ‘Aabir’ by corrupting the original name ‘Aabhir’. Up to third or fourth century A. D. and thereafter also it has been referred by both the names of ‘Kutch’ and ‘Aabhir’.

Earlier the Aabhirs were dwelling in this region and hence known as ‘Aabhir’ from its original dwellers. Because of its unique geographical situation, surrounded by water and waste land, it was known as ‘Kutch’ later. The administrative role of Kutch seems hazy. Different communities came from the north and the east inhabited on this land since the ancient time. During the known period of the history, it has remained under the control of various dynasties ruling over Sindh and Gujarat. It was also a part of the Maurya Dynasty. There after; it came under the control of Shak, Kshatrap, Gupt, Haihaya. Later on Maitrak, Gurjar, Chaulukya, Chavda, Solanki, Kathi and other rulers of Gujarat ruled over it. Thus, Kutch had very close association with Gujarat whose course of history has created a great impact on this region.
The history of Kutch can be generally divided into two periods, the ancient and modern that means from the starting of the 14th Century before the victory of Sama of Jadeja and the period thereafter or when the Sama Rajput community of Sindh won the Kutch then a separate state of Kutch came into existence in the 14th century. In the ancient Hindu writings, this region is referred as land on sea-shore or desert area. The earlier history of Kutch is found in Greek literature. During 142 – 124 B. C., Kutch was a part of Manendra state spread from Jamna to Saurashtra. Immediately after that (120 B. C.) the Greko Bactrian Empire fell down. The Sethians known as Shak or Min colonized in Kutch and other parts of North Gujarat. In 56 B. C. as Vikramaditya defeated them, they returned after 20 to 30 years and Choketsyin established his empire.

In this first century of Christ, Parthians were thrown down whose power spread from Sindh to South Bharuch. During the first century after the Christ (77 A. D.), Odumbari, referred by Pliny, usually should be the natives of Kutch. Aarbandari, described by Ptolemy (150 A. D.), must be their head quarter. Another reference of Kutchh indicates that Kutch was given to Charans at the time of Telugu’s death during his publicity in the initial period of the eighth century (around 714 A. D.). It seems that Chavdas of the East were the second main tribe of Kutch. During this period, Arabs had started attacking on Kathiawad and Gujarat shores and won the Sindh. They had started their stay on the sea shore of Kutch in the ninth century. There is reference about Kutch in Al-Biruni (970 - 1034) and as described in it one branch of the river Sindhu meets the Sindh Sea at Kutch border. Bhimdev the 1st (1022 – 1072) of Anhilwad ran away before Muhammad Ghazni came to Kanthkot in the beginning of the eleventh century (1023 A. D.). By the end of the century, the forth Sumra prince Sindhar had taken the area up to Manikbai in his possession.

The modern history of Kutch can be considered from the date when the Sama Rajputs of Sindh won the Kutch. This happened in 14th century or at least it ended by then. In the beginning of the 15th century (1410), Muzaffar Shah (1390 – 1411), the  pioneer of the kingdom of Ahmedabad, defeated the commander of Kanthkot. Though the rule was of Ahmedabad Empire because of this defeat, Kutch remained independent till 1472. It seems that the Sardars of Kutch did not have friendly relations in the beginning of the sixteenth century with Ardhun dynasty (1519 – 1543); who had won over Sama of Tota. According to historians of Sindh, Shah Hussain (1522 - 1544) had entered the Kutch in around 1530 for an occasion and had given stiff defeat to Rao. Jam Dadarji, Jam Hamirji and Jam Rawal were the representatives of the three branches of Jadeja dynasty at that time. Bharmal had gone to Ahmedabad during the rule of Mughal Emperor Jahangir and had presented a gift. Jahangir was very pleased with him. 
He gave him gift in return and had made Kutch free of the tribute on the condition that the pilgrims going to Mecca would be allowed to go from Kutch. In 1741, Lakhaji Rao had imprisoned his father and took over the reign of Kutch. Rao Desalji ruled up to 1860. An unfortunate conflict went on between Rao Desalji and his crown prince for some time, but friendly relations were established before his death. In 1859, as he was suffering from serious illness, Rao had requested to appoint a state representative to administer and to relieve him of burden of ruling over the state. His request was accepted and on 12th July, the Rao of Kutch had selected the crown prince as Minister and two other Jadeja leaders as members in the advisory Board under the president ship of a political agent. Next year, on 21st of June, the Advisory Board was dissolved and the control of the state way vested in his obvious heir Pragmalji, the 2nd due to the urgent request of Rao. He ruled from 1860 to 1875. After Rao Pragmalji, came Rao Khengar, the 3rd came to power.

He was only of 10 years at the time of his coronation and the state matters were administered under the supervision of a political agent. This royal dynasty went on till the independence. The present Kutch district is made of previous states of the Kutch and 10 villages of the previous Morbi state. It was a class - ‘C’ state after 1947. The Government of India was ruling through the Chief Commissioner. In November - 1956, the states were re-organised and greater bi-lingual Bombay state was constituted with Vidarbh, Marathawada, Saurashtra and Kutch region and Kutch district became a part of the bi-lingual state. Finally, on 1st of May, 1960, the Bombay State was divided and Gujarat and Maharashtra, two separate states, were formed. From that date, Kutch district became a part of the newly constituted Gujarat state.Since there were border issues between India and Pakistan about the sovereignty over some of the parts of Kutch district, special attention was given on the Kutch district after independence.

It was decided to hand over the dispute on the India and Pakistan border to a neutral arbitration commission. On 30th June, 1965, they also agreed to abide by the decision of Commission and that no objection can be raised against the decision of the commission. The Head Quarter of this Commission was at Geneva. The commission heard the arguments from both the parties, scrutinized the documents, maps etc. submitted by both the parties and on 19th February, 1968 declared its judgement which is included in the judgement of India and Pakistan’s case on the western border. Accordingly, the boundary marking was undertaken in 1968 by erecting poles on the land and it ended in June 1969. 

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